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A new species of miniature characin, Erythrocharax altipinnis NETTO-FERRERIA et al, 2012, is described in the January 2013 issue of PLOS-One. Photo attached. The article is available free online here:
PLOS ONE: A New Miniature Characid (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae), with Phylogenetic Position Inferred from Morphological and Molecular Data

While the discovery of a new tetra species is not all that remarkable these days [46 new species of characins were described in 2010 alone], this one has significance. The genus Erythrocharax was erected by the authors for this species because morphologically it is absolutely unique among all known characins. Erythrocharax is distinguished from all other genera of the Characidae by having the pelvic bones firmly attached through the isquiatic processes.

The Characidae group has more than 1100 valid species to date, which is the fourth largest family of all fishes in the world; yet more than half of these are, within their respective genus, incertes sedes, meaning "of uncertain placement," a term used to define a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined. Recent studies attempting to sort through this confusion and establish some degree of order are referenced in the Introduction to the linked article.

Byron.
 

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