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Freshwater and Saltwater Diseases and Medications

This is a discussion on Freshwater and Saltwater Diseases and Medications within the Tropical Fish Diseases forums, part of the Freshwater Fish and Aquariums category; --> Patchy Disease Symptoms: As this seems to affect hillstream loaches more than any other fish species, it must be noted that the affected hillstream ...

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Freshwater and Saltwater Diseases and Medications
Old 09-14-2007, 08:43 AM   #41
 
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Patchy Disease

Patchy Disease
Symptoms:
As this seems to affect hillstream loaches more than any other fish species, it must be noted that the affected hillstream loaches usually have abnormally pale patches around their body. They may lose appetite as the disease progresses. Rapid breathing is also noticeable.

Causes:
Introduction via unquarantined fish.

Treatment:
Maracyn I and Maracyn II-Follow dosage as instructed.
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Old 09-14-2007, 08:52 AM   #42
 
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Goiter
Symptoms:
Thyroid gland tumor develops in the throat area.

Causes:
Lack of iodine.

Treatment:
Iodized table salt-It can be argued that this type of salt is harmful to fish simply because of the presence of additives and anti-caking agents however there have been reports of the use of iodized table salts without any issues at all. The choice is yours whether you wish to use it or not.

Foods containing iodine-Feed the fish regularly with foods containing iodine. The tumor may recede as time progresses.

Mineral salts-In some places, water does not contain enough iodine. It is therefore advisable to add mineral salts especially when you use reverse-osmosis (RO) water to replenish the minerals lost preventing nutrient deficiency. This must be used regularly until the tumor recedes.


Picture retrieved from Sera guide by Dieter Untergasser for reference purposes.
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Old 09-14-2007, 09:07 AM   #43
 
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Osmotic Shock
Symptoms:
Detachment of mucous membrane, fins appear to have been blown off, internal diseases become the consequences, increased vulnerability to skin diseases, gill and fin rot.

Causes:
When fish is transferred from water with high conductivity (high salt content) to water with low conductivity without an intermediate phase for adaptation, they suffer from osmotic shock. The fine cartilage joints in the fin rays can burst due to the high osmotic pressure. The fins fall off in large pieces and the fins are eventually infected with fungus and other bacterial infections especially when the fish becomes extremely weakened.

Treatment:
This is more of a case of prevention rather than actual treatment. Measure the conductivity between the water where the fish is and the water where it is to be transferred. The addition of mineral salt to the one with higher conductivity level will help minimize the chances of osmotic shock. Give the fish time to recover from the upheaval. Then, proceed to lowering the conductivity level to the desired level by doing small water changes over several hours.


Picture retrieved from Sera guide by Dieter Untergasser for reference purposes.
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Old 09-14-2007, 09:09 AM   #44
 
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Acidosis/Alkalosis
Symptoms:
Slimy skin (milky and cloudy), bleeding sores, thick cloudy coatings on the eyes, brownish coating on the gills, fish may dart and jump around the aquarium, jerky movements.

Causes:
Acidosis: Very low pH and hardness levels usually associated with pH swings.

Alkalosis: Fluctuation of pH and hardness level.

Treatment:
Acidosis: Check pH and carbonate hardness. Increase the pH and stabilize the carbonate hardness using baking soda, crushed corals, etc.

Alkalosis: Reduce the pH and hardness levels with the use of reverse-osmosis (RO) water and tannic acids by peat or driftwood.
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Old 09-14-2007, 09:11 AM   #45
 
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Damaged/Pinched Nerves
Symptoms:
Abnormally dark coloration in some parts of the body of the fish.

Causes:
Damaged nerves are a result from stress and shock a fish receives when it is transferred to a completely new environment without the proper acclimatization process set in place.

Treatment:
Let the fish recover in a quarantine tank. Stress coat may be added along with plenty of hiding places.


Picture retrieved from Sera guide by Dieter Untergasser for reference purposes.
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Old 09-14-2007, 09:13 AM   #46
 
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Continuous darkening of the whole body
Symptoms:
Title is self explanatory. Fish may gasp on the surface.

Causes:
Very poor water quality.

Treatment:
Increase tank maintenance regimen, cut down the number of fish in your aquarium, maximize filtration capacity.


Picture retrieved from Sera guide by Dieter Untergasser for reference purposes.
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Old 09-14-2007, 09:15 AM   #47
 
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Acute poisoning
Symptoms:
All fish or all of the same species die within several hours or one day, often with full color.

Causes:
Recall what you have done near the aquarium’s area. Have you sprayed pesticides, fungicide and other toxic chemicals? Have you use dose the aquarium heavily with copper?

Treatment:
Do plenty of water changes and use activated carbon. You may use the water conditioner at double dose to help bind the excess heavy metal contents. Keep a watch on your water parameters.
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Old 09-14-2007, 09:16 AM   #48
 
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Constant gasping around the surface
Symptoms:
Title is self-explanatory.

Causes:
Oxygen deficiency, excessive levels of carbon dioxide, gill flukes and other gill diseases.

Treatment:
Gill diseases-Please refer to the previous posts for gill diseases and their recommended treatments.

Oxygen deficiency/excessive levels of carbon dioxide-Carry out a very large water change or partial small water changes for several minutes and switch on all air pumps or ensure vigorous surface movements to diffuse the carbon dioxide out of the aquarium.
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Old 09-14-2007, 09:17 AM   #49
 
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Insidious intoxication
Symptoms:
Unnatural coloring, darkening, fish are easily startled especially when you knock on the glass.

Causes:
1. Decorative objects may be releasing toxins.
2. Excessive copper or chlorine levels.
3. Contamination of environmental toxins, disinfectants or detergents coming from the water pipes.
4. Compact substrate with anaerobic bacteria causing the release of hydrogen sulfides which are toxic to the fish.

Treatment:
1. Remove the suspected decorative objects and use the activated carbon.
2 and 3. Refer to the post regarding the Acute poisoning.
4. Disturb the substrate regularly and do plenty of water changes. Compact substrate is quite noticeable when bubbles appear as you disturb the substrate.
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Old 09-14-2007, 09:18 AM   #50
 
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The above freshwater and saltwater diseases including disorders and others posted have been compiled for your convenience. Below are the references from where all information of the freshwater and saltwater diseases has been obtained.

Bailey, Mary and Sandford, Gina, The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Aquarium Fish and Fish Care. Anness Publishing Limited Hermes House, 88-89 Blackfairs Road, London SE1 8HA

Pandora’s Aquarium
This site aims to improve its vast archives of diseases and photos. A lot of treatments are often suggested by this site. No web link, however, has been found. Please let me know what the web link is as the site was simply stored in my files for future reference.

Sera guide: How to Keep Your Ornamental Fish Healthy
Dieter Untergasser is the scientific consultant of the Sera company. The Sera guidebook was published along with his consultations, researches and experiments for the benefit of several aquarists most especially those who have patronized the Sera products for a long time.

http://www.nfkc.info/
A good website owned by the North Florida Koi Club. It contains details of diseases found mostly in the ponds.

http://www.members.optushome.com.au/chelmon/index.htm
A website “Home of the Rainbowfish” owned by Adrian Tappin which contains an excellent article regarding the Mycobacteriosis disease afflicting several known rainbowfish species especially other species outside the Melanotaenidae genus

http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FA041
A website under the ownership of the University of Florida. It has plenty of details on the diseases that surround the aquarium hobby.

http://www.fishdoc.co.uk/
This site contains vast details of diseases that surround the aquarium.

http://www.fishvet.com/
This site aims to provide more details of diseases as your reference tools.

http://www.reefs.org/
The website is a good resource when you consider keeping marine aquaria. Diseases that are found only in the marine environment can be found here.

http://www.koivet.com/
A good resource for articles.

http://www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/ivcvm/1999/anders/index.php
A site containing full details of the Erythrodermatitis caused by bacteria of the Aeromonas genus.

http://www.mass.gov/czm/wpfshlth.htm
One of the few sites very rich in details of fish diseases.

http://www.glfc.org/pubs/SpecialPubs...pdf/chap24.pdf
A site documented under the ownership of U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Services

http://homepage.ntlworld.com/duncan....sh%20leech.htm
An article with a very detailed explanation regarding the fish leech.

http://www.koicarp.net/
An excellent website containing mostly information and guidelines for pond care.

http://www.aquaworldnet.com/awmag/diseases.htm#ittiospo
An article containing several databases of various freshwater and saltwater diseases. It, however, lacks sufficient information on treatments against diseases.

http://en.wikipedia.org/
An ultimate website encyclopedia containing almost everything you need to know.

http://www.ices.dk/products/fiche/Di...%20no%2053.pdf
A website run by Adobe Reader containing details of a few more unfamiliar diseases.

http://inkmkr.com/Fish/CamallanusTre...sTreatment.pdf
A website containing excellent information regarding the camallanus worms and their prevention and treatment.

http://www.skepticalaquarist.com/
A good website with very detailed explanations in regard to the diseases circulating the hobby.
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