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Freshwater and Saltwater Diseases and Medications

This is a discussion on Freshwater and Saltwater Diseases and Medications within the Tropical Fish Diseases forums, part of the Freshwater Fish and Aquariums category; --> Columnaris ( Flexibacter columnaris ) Synonyms: Cotton-wool, Mouth Fungus, Flexibacter Symptoms: White mouth with tiny filaments, white areas near edge of scales, clamped fins, ...

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Freshwater and Saltwater Diseases and Medications
Old 09-10-2007, 10:44 AM   #11
 
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Columnaris

Columnaris (Flexibacter columnaris)
Synonyms:
Cotton-wool, Mouth Fungus, Flexibacter

Symptoms:
White mouth with tiny filaments, white areas near edge of scales, clamped fins, fins start to rot in the later stage, fish struggles and sways near the surface

Causes:
This is bacterial infection which is very common in the aquaria and is very contagious. Immediate action is needed to contain it before it spreads to other fish.

Treatment:
Broad spectrum antibiotics, Sera Baktopur, Binox, Maracyn I & II, Kanacyn, Terramycin, Acriflavine, Furan, Copper Sulfate

Flexibacter columnaris thrives very well in warm waters therefore it is necessary to gradually lower the temperature to prevent it from progressing.




Pictures retrieved from Sera guide by Dieter Untergasser for reference purposes.
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Old 09-10-2007, 11:10 AM   #12
 
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Velvet Disease (Oodinium)
Synonyms:
Coral Fish Disease, Amyloodinium

Symptoms:
Fine gold-white "dust", rapid breathing, erratic behavior, flashing, clamped fins, lack of appetite

Causes:
Amyloodinium pillularis infests fish in freshwater environment whereas Amyloodinium ocellatum infests fish in saltwater environment. The fish will look like they have been poured with flour as the spots rapidly spread.

This parasite is a dinoflagellate that can easily spread to other hosts hence it is very contagious. Poor water quality can attribute to their rapid reproduction.

Treatment:
Freshwater dip, hyposalinity, Copper Sulfate, Atabrine (Quinacrine hydrochloride)
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Old 09-10-2007, 07:29 PM   #13
 
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Gyrodactylidea

Gyrodactylidea
Symptoms:
Rubbing movements, overproduction of mucous membrane, listlessness around the surface, rapid breathing due to stress

Causes:
The livebearing flukes, Gyrodactylidea are responsible for the erratic behavior of the fish which will eventually be overcome by the stress. Gyrodactylidea is found more often in the ponds rather than the aquaria but they can be transported to the aquaria too if the infested pond fish is introduced. They prefer colder temperatures and are much less common in warm water aquaria.

Some species can reach 3 mm and can be seen with the naked eye if closely watched.

The flukes hook themselves to the fish's tissues severely damaging it and at this stage, the fish begins to rub itself around the aquarium. The flukes must be eliminated immediately as soon as you detect them.

Treatment:
1. Formalin (It has been noted that this is not very effective against the eradication of fluke eggs.

2. Potassium Permanganate

3. Flubendazole-Noted to be very effective against the fluke eggs.

4. Praziquantel

5. Salt dips

6. Sera Mycopur

7. Sera Ectopur

8. Chloramine T

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Old 09-10-2007, 11:20 PM   #14
 
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Dactylogyridea

Dactylogyridea
Symptoms:
Rubbing movements, rapid breathing, one gill is usually shut while using the other

Causes:
Poor water quality, stress and overpopulation will allow the gill flukes to reproduce quickly and the fish soon begins to rub over objects. If they are heavily infested, then they will stand under the surface breathing heavily. Adult fish usually can tolerate minor infestations but if infested heavily or severely stressed, they will eventually succumb to the gill flukes.

Dactylogyridea is an egg-laying gill fluke that is just the opposite of the Gyrodactylidea. They live mainly in the gills and can be visible with the naked eye as they reach 2-3 mm. Eggs fall to the bottom of the aquarium or vat. The fluke after it hatches eventually finds a host where it can attach itself.

Gill flukes have hooks that they use to attach themselves on the mucous membranes of the skin and gills of the fish thus injuring them. As a result, secondary infections such as fungi, protozoans and bacteria will appear and start to overtake the fish. Treatment must be done immediately to stop this situation from getting to the worse.

Treatment:
1. Formalin (It has been noted that this is not very effective against the eradication of fluke eggs.

2. Potassium Permanganate

3. Flubendazole-Noted to be very effective against the fluke eggs.

4. Praziquantel

5. Salt dips

6. Sera Mycopur

7. Sera Ectopur

8. Chloramine T
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Old 09-11-2007, 12:10 AM   #15
 
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Lymphocystis
Synonyms:
Cauliflower Disease

Symptoms:
Lethargy, firm globular cysts on the skin which when stroked with a finger feels hard and does not come off, imbalanced swimming position if cysts are located near the lateral line, bacterial infections appear as secondary infection in the later stages eventually killing the fish

Causes:
Viral infection that infests the fish and changes the cells of the mucous membrane. They rapidly increase in size thus allowing them to be seen even with a naked eye. Cells expand at a diameter of 1 mm and takes on the appearance of a cauliflower hence the name "Cauliflower Disease".

The cells continue to grow and eventually explode releasing a million viruses that float into the water and eventually infecting more fish. The disease usually starts around the fin edges and eventually to the base and other parts of the body.

Dyed fish are very vulnerable to this disease as their epidermis has been damaged from being subjected to dyeing processes.

Treatment:
There is no known cure for this disease. It has been suggested however that the afflicted parts can be surgically removed. If spotted in time, the edges of the fins must be cut away with a sharp scissors noting that the disease itself usually starts at the edges of the fins. Treat the fins with medications prescribed to prevent pathogens from infecting them.

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Old 09-11-2007, 01:15 AM   #16
 
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Carp Pox
Symptoms:
Round or oval-shaped pale or pink elevations measuring from 5-10 mm appearing on the body surface of the affected fish

Causes:
Cold temperature can bring about the carp pox which is not a real pox but a herpes disease, which is not transmitted to humans.

Treatment:
In some cases, it has been known to return on winter season or when the temperature becomes cold and eventually disappears as the warm weather comes noting that this disease is caused by a coldwater virus. The fish, however, do not appear to be suffering very much from the infection even when heavily infested hence they will not die from the carp pox. They gradually recover when kept under the optimum conditions.

The disease is, however still a remnant of the organism and will break out every time the fish becomes weakened especially during the spring.

Acriflavine can also be used to treat for carp pox.

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Old 09-11-2007, 02:03 AM   #17
 
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Dropsy of Carp
Symptoms:
Protrusion of scales, pop-eyes, bloated abdomen, kidney failure

Causes:
Pathogens invade and proliferate in the weakened fish. Remove the diseased fish immediately and quarantine and treat accordingly.

On the side note, according to Dieter Untergasser, dropsy of carps has been considered as an independent disease before. However, investigation with more sophisticated methods has shown that it can also be the symptomology of spring virosis in its advanced stadium of development.

Treatment:
Sera Baktopur, Sera Cyprinopur

Usually the affected fish cannot be saved anymore.




Pictures retrieved from the Sera guide by Dieter Untergasser for reference purposes.
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Old 09-11-2007, 02:45 AM   #18
 
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Spring Virosis
Symptoms:
Protrusion of scales, pop-eyes, bloated abdomen, kidney failure, anus is puffed out excreting slimy wastes, fish gather around the filter outflow to keep themselves in balanced swimming position, punctual bleedings around the skin, gills, fin bases and pale gills

Causes:
It is a contagious viral infection and will be transmitted via an unquarantined fish infected with the virus. If the fish survives the disease, it becomes immune to it for the whole lives however they will remain as carriers of the disease. The disease tends to break out during autumn when temperatures fall below 20 degrees Celsius.

A lot of theories have been speculated on the transmission of spring virosis and one such theory is that the viruses enter the blood circulation through the gills. Fish lice, fish leeches and other external parasites have been proven to transmit the disease among several fish when attempting to suck their blood.

According to Dieter Untergasser, the viruses only reproduce slightly with lower temperatures and are not active in winter. They will start to reproduce only when the temperatures soars above 6 degrees Celsius in spring and when the fish's immune system is weakened.

Treatment:
A combination of Sera Baktopur and Sera Cyprinopur

There is no cure for the eradication of the active viruses which is why it is recommended to treat the fish immediately or during the period where the viruses become inactive. The earlier you discover the outbreak, the better the chances of containing the viral outbreak. Note that a lot of viruses are quite resistant against antibiotics and several medications prescribed.


Pictures retrieved from the Sera guide by Dieter Untergasser for reference purposes.
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Old 09-11-2007, 03:36 AM   #19
 
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Bacterial Fin Rot
Symptoms:
The fins are frayed and getting shorter. Edges are whitish.

Causes:
Overpopulation, severe stress especially on transit, untreated injuries, poor water quality and poor maintenance are the main causes of fin rot. Fin rot can occur in connection with columnaris, fungal overgrowths, lesions and as a secondary infection to parasite infestations. Ffish begins to have difficulty swimming due to the damaged fins.

Treatment:
Broad spectrum antibiotics, frequent water changes are a must to improve water quality


Picture retrieved from O-fish.com for reference purposes.
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Old 09-11-2007, 03:50 AM   #20
 
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Bacterial Gill Rot
Symptoms:
Gill areas become white or gray, gill filaments fall off and decompose

Causes:
Ammonia intoxication, alkalosis, parasites that damage the sensitive mucous membrane of the gills

Treatment:
Know your water parameters. What exactly are your ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and pH? Frequent water changes are necessary to improve water quality. Very high pH can also be one of the main causes along with very poor water conditions and high organic loads.


Picture retrieved from the Sera guide by Dieter Untergasser for reference purposes.
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