12-30-2008, 01:39 AM
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organic waste can be allowed to decompose or turned over to a cleanup crew, (snails,hermit crabs, various worms,copopods, gammarus, other shrimp, even the coral themselves. when organics decompose they give off ammonia, this ammonia is broken down by bios into nitrite, then another class of bios change the nitrite to nitrate, then the nitrate is changed into nitrogen and what nitrogen does not escape the tank will start the denitrification process all over again.almost all nitrate is reduced to nitrogen in the sand bed (substrate) an excess of nitrate can be removed thru water changes or increasing the bio population. not by skimming.