Black Skirt Tetra, Black Widow Tetra (Gymnocorymbus ternetzi)
Family: Characidae, Subfamily Stethaprioninae
Common Name: Black Skirt Tetra, Black Widow Tetra
Origin and Habitat: Basins of the Rio Paraguay and Rio Guapore, Bolivia to northern Argentina. Found in small slow-flowing creeks and streams, usually with dense overhanging or floating vegetation.
Compatibility/Temperament: Peaceful, especially when kept in groups of at least 6 but preferably more; in smaller groups or individually it may become nippy of fins. Should not be kept with sedate fish such as angelfish, discus, gourami due to likely nipping. In a soft/acidic aquarium, compatible with other characins, dwarf cichlids, rasbora, danio, small catfish and loaches; in basic/alkaline aquaria, suitable companion to livebearers. May be seen chasing each other, but little or no harm is ever done.
Black Widow Tetra Diet
Omnivorous, will readily feed on prepared foods such as flake and frozen daphnia and bloodworms.
Grows up to 2.25 inches, some authors suggest up to 3 inches.
Minimum Tank Suggestion
24-30 inches in length.
Water parameters for Black Widow Tetra
Soft to moderately hard (hardness to 30 dGH, preferably below 20 dGH) acidic to basic (pH to 8.0 but preferably under 7) water, temperature 20-26C/68-79F.
A fairly active species when young, it likes some swimming space in a planted aquarium; floating plants are also recommended, along with subdued lighting to bring out the best deep black colouration. As it matures, it becomes less active. It will occupy all levels in the aquarium.
A good fish for the beginning aquarist as it is tolerant of basic water conditions, and quite hardy. Available fish are all captive bred.
Males are slimmer than females, and have a more pointed dorsal and anal fin. Easy to spawn, using the standard methods for characins. Adults will readily devour the eggs if not removed.
Some forms have been selectively bred for aquaria, such as the long-fin and white skirt tetra. Unfortunately, artificially dyed forms (injected with coloured dyes) are sometimes seen; this practice is highly stressful to the fish and results in a much shorter lifespan; such fish should not be purchased.
This species was originally described as Tetragonopterus ternetzi (Boulenger 1895) and was assigned to the present genus by Gomez and Chebez (1996).
The genus Gymnocorymbus was previously considered within the Subfamily Tetragonopterinae, but this classification has for some time been deemed incertae sedis [Latin for "of uncertain placement"]. Javonillo, et al. (2010) determined that the Subfamily Tetragonopterinae should only be used for species within the genus Tetragonopterus. Also, J. Marcos Mirande (2009) proposed several revisions to the Family Characidae based upon phylogenetic diagnosis. Some genera have been moved to a new subfamily, while others are now (temporarily) assigned to a specific clade within the family pending further study.
Javonillo, Robert, Luiz R. Malabarba, Stanley H. Weitzman and John R. Burns (2010), "Relationships among major lineages of characid fishes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes), based on molecular sequence data," Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Vol. 54, No. 2 (February 2010).
Mirande, J. Marcos (2009), "Weighted parsimony phylogeny of the family Characidae (Teleostei: Characiformes)," Cladistics, Vol. 25, No. 6 (July 2009).
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