01-02-2007, 11:06 PM
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The placement of the power head can be either near the top ar near the bottom and is determined by where you want the force to go.
Many salt water invert tanks have the head near the bottom to enhance flow over such creatures as anemones.
Fresh water tanks, more often than not, prefer the power head to be near the top to create ripples on top of the water to increase suface area and loosen water tension and increase oxygen transfer.
I personally set my power heads higher. I also run many of my tanks' power heads in reverse flow. By running in reverse flow, I keep my gravel less littered of uneaten food and other detrius, thus allowing fewer gravel sweeps. This method also oxygenates my bacteria bed much more evenly and effectively than running the power heads in the traditional manner.