I hate to be the "naysayer" here
the problems are viral and accumulation of salts, metals, etc.!
Can our astronauts drink their urine after proper filtration?
Can they drink it ten times?
Nope: not without the deposition of metals into their primary organs as well as salts into their primary and secondary organs.
Ever seen "The Right Stuff"?
Measles is viral.
Chlorination will not kill viruses instantaneously.
Hence minimum detention times in raw water treatment facilities.
Can nature be simulated?
The answer is probably but only with â€œseriousâ€ detention times and filtration emulation.