Cyprinidae, Subfamily Danioninae Common Name:
Giant Danio Origin and Habitat:
SE Asia: Northern India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand. Found in moderate-flow clear streams and rivers with gravel and pebble substrates and shaded by overhanging vegetation. Compatibility/Temperament:
A shoaling fish that must be kept in a group due to its high level of interaction; 8 is considered the minimum number. Their activeness makes them unsuited to any slow or sedate fish, and they are best with medium/larger danio, peaceful barbs, and loaches. Several sources mention their boisterous aggressiveness including fin nipping, and this will more likely be curtailed and confined to "play" if a group of 8 or more are kept in a 4+ foot tank with suitable tankmates. These fish are jumpers, so a tight cover is a must. Giant Danio Diet
Naturally feeds on exogenous insects, crustaceans and worms. Accepts most prepared foods readily; dried flake and granular can be supplemented with frozen bloodworms, brine shrimp, daphnia, live worms. Size
Most sources give 4 inches as the maximum, but some indicate 5-6 inches. Minimum Tank Suggestion
48 inches in length; a 55g or larger. Water parameters for Giant Danio
Soft to medium hard (hardness 5-20 dGH), slightly acidic to basic (pH 6 to 8), temperature 22-25C/71-77F. Description
Most of the more than 30 valid species in the Devario
genus are unknown to aquarists. There are several species that attain the 4-6 inch size, and any of them may be offered under the common name of "Giant Danio." The subject species is the one most frequently encountered in the hobby. This species is similar to the more common Danio rerio
[Zebra Danio], but larger and rather more boisterous as noted under Compatibility. It has a lifespan of 5-7 years.
Like all danionins [a useful name for the species in Danio
], it is a very active swimmer, preferring the middle and upper regions of the aquarium. A suitable aquascape would be a long tank (at least 4-feet) with a substrate of gravel and pebbles, and a moderate flow from the filter whose outflow should be placed at one end of the tank to provide the natural current of a stream. Plants along the back are appropriate, and floating plants or overhanging vegetation will replicate the fish's habitat.
Males are a bit more colourful and slightly smaller than the rounder females. Like most cyprinids, this species is an egg scatterer and shows no parental care of eggs or fry; it is an easy spawning fish in aquaria.
Upon being initially described in 1839 by J. McClelland, the assigned name for this species was Perilampus aequipinnatus
. In 1981 the species was transferred into the genus Danio
where it remained until Fang (2003) sorted things out [see following].
The danionin is a group of minnow-like fish within the family Cyprinidae. All discovered species were originally placed in the genus Danio
until Dr. George S. Meyers (in the early 20th century) divided them into three genera, Danio, Brachydanio
. During the latter two decades of the twentieth century, many ichthyologists had doubts about the validity of Brachydanio
, and in 2003 Dr. Fang determined that the genus Danio
was paraphyletic [Greek para
= near and phyle
= race], which means the genus contains its most recent common ancestor but does not contain all the descendants of that ancestor. Danio
was restricted to the nine species of the Danio dangila
group comprised of the smaller-sized species, and the genus name Devario
was proposed for the remaining larger-sized species. The former genus Brachydanio
Several further developments in research occurred in the subsequent years, and their findings largely supported Dr. Fang's results. Mayden et.al. (2007) also recognized the close relationship of Microrasbora
species to those of Danio
. The subject fish thus became Devario aequipinnatus
In Joseph S. Nelson's Fishes of the World
(2006), Danioninae was listed as a synonym of Rasborinae. It was generally held (though some disagreed) that there are three clades within the genus Danio
, and the danionin genera are within the subfamily Rasborinae [having priority over Danioninae] along with several genera of rasborin. The danionins can be classed as a subfamily Danioninae, and this placement increasingly gained credibility (and is now accepted) as a distinct subfamily from Rasborinae within the Cyprinidae family. References:
Fang, Fang (2003), "Phylogenetic Analysis of the Asian Cyprinid Genus Danio (Teleostei, Cyprinidae)," Copeia
(no. 4), pp. 714-728.
Fang, Fang, M. Noren, T.-Y. Liao, M. Kallersjo and S. O. Kullander (2009), "Molecular phylogenetic interrelationships of the south Asian cyprinid genera Danio
(Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Danioninae)," Zoologica Scripta
volume 38 (no. 3), pp. 156-237.
Mayden, Richard L., Kevin L. Tang, Kevin W. Conway, Jorg Freyhof, Sarah Chamberlain, Miranda Haskins, Leah Schneider, Mitchell Sudkamp, Robert M. Wood, Mary Agnew, Angelo Bufalino, Zohrah Sulaiman, Masaki Miya, Jenji Saitoh, and Shunping He (2007), "Phylogenetic relationships of Danio within the order Cypriniformes: a framework for comparative and evolutionary studies of a model species," Journal of Experimental Zoology, Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
, 308 (5), pp. 642-654.
Ruber, Lucas, Maurice Kottelat, Heok Hui Tan, Peter KL Ng, and Ralf Britz (2007), "Evolution of miniaturization and the phylogenetic position of Paedocypris, comprising the world's smallest vertebrate," BMC Evolutionary Biology
7, p. 38. Contributing Members
The following members have contributed to this profile: Byron, jack26707