Well, if you have taken out the old filter and replaced it with a new one then you probably have lost a lot of bacteria, as it lives mostly in the sponges in the filters, and started your cycle over again. In future, the best way of changing filters is to let them both run simultaneously till the new one has had a chance to gain a good colony of the beneficial bacteria that keeps your tank healthy (a few weeks will do the job.) No worries though, what's done is done!
So you're gonna get some spikes in your ammonia, nitrate and nitrite as the bacterial population in your tank builds back up to a stable level, and it may be this that is causing the white cloudiness (bacterial bloom) and the subsequent green stuff (algae, feeding on the spikes and the light levels). I always get a white cloudiness in my tanks when i'm cycling them, but it does go away after a while, but i suspect your light levels are a bit high (as previously said 8-10 hours is fine) so it's led to an algae infestation!
Adding some cycle might well help, as it'll help get the cycle going faster, but you'll really need to keep an eye on your water condition and parameters, over the next few weeks and be prepared to do a few water changes as the levels go up, or your fish won't like it all!
Have you got another tank that has a matured filter in it that you could take some filter media from? Or a friend that could lend you some filter media from an established tank? Just don't take all of it, or they'll have the same problem you have! If you can do this, then move the media from one tank to the other (keeping it wet with tank water - don't let it dry out!) and put it in your filter if there is space inside, or just weigh it down nearby of not, and it'll help seed your tank with bacteria getting it re-cyled much faster. Some gravel or rocks from another tank will do the same job, but not quite as efficiently...
Check out this sticky for cycling info, it's a much better explanation than i can give! http://www.fishforum.com/viewtopic.php?t=3738
Keep us all posted and i'm sure there are folks who will be able to help you more than me! But i'd really recomend testing your water to see what state it is in! Hope that helps!