Can you describe your tank; is it planted - lots of plants or a couple. How do you clean your filters, do you use tap water or aquarium water to clean them. What tests do you do on your tank - PH, ammonia, nitrites, nitrates, hardness GH and KH.
The bloom sounds like a tank re-cycling; if you don't mind throwing some money at it, around $25; I'd get some Seachem Stability and apply it as required, you only need the smallest bottle. With the remaining money, purchase some horwort plants, these guys are ammonia feeders. They aren't the prettiest plant around, heck you don't even need to plant them, just leave them in your tank (floating if you prefer) for at least 4 to 6 weeks.
I'm guessing by your description of events, your tank is either plantless or thinly planted.
If you can find some Seachem Purigen, it will absorb some of the nasties and polish your water; this stuff is cheap. Add it in your canister filter. It can be recycled from 5 to 8 times before it is exhausted.
If you have future problems with a green bloom in your tank, you might want to consider a UV sterilizer. Here's a long and sometimes technical article but well worth reading: http://www.americanaquariumproducts....ilization.html